Against the current tendency to view figures such as the Apostle Paul, Spinoza, or Freud as quintessentially Jewish despite their alienation from Judaism, this presentation will attempt to take that alienation and its theological implications at face value. Prof. Kaufman will focus on twentieth-century Jewish literary and philosophical figures, particularly Simone Weil, who embraced Christianity in radical fashion, so much so that their form of apostasy extends to both religions.